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Cana - Substantivo Feminino |
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*Leila Dinardo-Miranda

Dentre os organismos daninhos existentes na agricultura brasileira, os nematoides estão entre os mais comuns e impactantes. Responsáveis por perdas expressivas e prejuízos bilionários na agricultura, eles podem ser encontrados nas mais diversas culturas e afetam diretamente a produtividade das lavouras.

Quando falamos especificamente sobre os nematoides que afetam a cana-de-açúcar, podemos destacar quatro espécies – em ordem de importância: Pratylenchus zeae, Meloidogyne javanica, Pratylenchus brachyurus e Meloidogyne incognita, sendo essa última a mais rara em canaviais. Cada um deles apresenta diferentes graus de infestação e severidade de danos à cultura e são responsáveis por reduzir a produtividade dos canaviais em cerca de 10%, podendo chegar até a 30%, aproximadamente. Em média, o agricultor “gasta” de três a quatro toneladas de cana para tratar a área afetada pelos parasitos.

Apesar dos nematoides estarem presentes em todos os estados do País, São Paulo é onde os produtores canavieiros demonstram mais preocupação com os parasitos e, por isso, é o local que mais realiza amostragens de raízes e de solo, também com mais frequência do que em outros estados.

Os sintomas causados por nematoides não são facilmente perceptíveis durante o desenvolvimento da cana, mas as irregularidades na lavoura podem indicar a presença deles. Se o produtor notar a redução no crescimento da planta e a redução da produtividade em sua lavoura, ele deve, antes de realizar o controle por meio de nematicidas, providenciar uma amostragem do solo e das raízes da área em um laboratório. Após esta confirmação, o agricultor deve entrar com o controle, por meio de defensivos, seguindo as Boas Práticas Agrícolas.

Além disso, o produtor deve realizar constantemente um trabalho de contenção da disseminação de nematoides no solo, como um bom terraceamento que evite a erosão do solo e o cuidado na limpeza dos maquinários.

*Leila Dinardo-Miranda é Agrônoma e pesquisadora do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas (IAC)

Henrique Almeida
Executivo de Conta

 

Fonte: Assessoria

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